Health Promoting Sports Clubs Model
A theoretical framework (see Figure 1 for details) has been recently developed, evolving from a HPSC concept to a HPSC model, and defining seven layers of stakeholders supporting the development of four types of health determinants (i.e., organizational, social, environmental and economic determinants). Four of these layers operates within sports clubs: the individual level (personal characteristics and behaviors of sport participants in terms of physical, mental, and social health), the micro-level (activities of coaches and team manager, including volunteers responsible of a team, to influence sport participants health behaviors), the meso-level (activities of club managers, i.e. member of executive or board, including president, secretary, committee members, considered individually, to guide, modify or support HP actions of coaches and athletes/players at the micro- and individual level) and the macro-level (overall club HP policies and direction to guide, modify or support HP actions at the lower levels, defined by club board). In addition to these internal levels, there are three external interacting with and influencing the club: 1) Government authorities (government-led initiatives at national to local level to invest in HP within sports clubs), 2) public health actors (guidance and support from public health actors for HP development within sports clubs), and 3) sports federations (policies, regulations and support from sports federations to affiliated clubs to implement HP).